General Operation

This chapter describes the general manipulations of images using Ginga.

For the most part these manipulations apply both to Ginga ImageView classes that can be embedded in a Python application, as well as to the reference viewer distributed with Ginga.


In cases where we are referring to something that is only available in the reference viewer these will be prefixed by the notation [RV].

Keyboard and mouse operations

In this documentation we will use the following terms to describe the operations performed with the mouse:

  • Click or Left-click means to click on an item with the left mouse button;

  • Drag or Left-drag means to click, hold and drag with the left mouse button;

  • Scroll means to scroll with the middle mouse wheel or a trackpad/touchpad;

  • Scroll-click means to click with the middle mouse wheel/button;

  • Scroll-drag means to click, hold and drag with the middle mouse wheel/button;

  • Right-click means to click on an item with the right mouse button;

  • Right-drag means to click, hold and drag with the right mouse button.

Mouse operations are also modified by the keyboard buttons Shift, and Ctrl.

Shift-click means to press and hold the Shift key while clicking with left mouse button. Shift-right-click is the same using the right mouse button, etc.

Some mouse-controlled operations in Ginga are initiated by a key stroke. In these cases the key is pressed and released (not held), and then the mouse is used to control the operation. Such operations are either terminated by releasing the mouse button (if the operation employs a drag), and clicking on the image or by pressing the Esc key (if not a drag operation).


We describe the standard key and mouse bindings here. However these bindings can be changed completely by the user. For more information on changing the bindings, see Section Binding Config File.

Loading a FITS image file

There are several ways to load a file into Ginga:

  • Ginga supports drag-and-drop in a typical desktop environment, so you can simply drag and drop files from a graphical file manager such as the Mac Finder or Linux Nautilus onto a Ginga viewing pane to load an image.

  • [RV] Another way is to invoke the FBrowser plugin, which opens in the Dialogs tab. The plugin pane shows file and folder contents and allows navigation up and down the filesystem hierarchy by double-clicking on folder names. Simply navigate to the location of the FITS file and double-click on the file name to load it, or drag it onto the image pane.

  • [RV] Use the Load Image entry from the File menu on the main menu bar at the top of the window. This opens a standard file dialog popup window where you can navigate to the file you wish to load.

Zooming and panning

The display object used throughout most of the Ginga panels has built-in support for zooming and panning. The Quick Reference has the complete listing of default keyboard and mouse bindings.

For example:

  • The scroll wheel of the mouse can be used to zoom in and out, along with the “+” and “-” keys.

  • The backquote key will fit the image to the window.

  • Digit keys (1, 2, etc.) will zoom in to the corresponding zoom level, while holding Shift and pressing a zoom key zooms out to the corresponding level.

When zoomed in, panning is enabled. Panning takes two forms:

  1. Proportional panning or “drag panning” pans the image in direct proportion to the distance the mouse is moved. You can think of this as dragging the image canvas in the direction you want to move it under the window portal. To utilize a proportional pan, Ctrl-drag the canvas, or press Space followed by “q” to go into pan mode, and then drag the canvas.

2) Free panning allows scrolling around the entire image by mapping the entire image boundaries to the window boundaries. For example, moving the mouse to the upper right-hand corner of the window will pan to the upper right hand corner of the image, etc. You can think of this mode as moving the window portal around over the canvas. To initiate a free pan, press Space followed by “w” to enter “freepan” mode and then Scroll-drag to move around the window.

[RV] The Pan plugin (usually embedded under the Info tab) shows the outline of the current pan position as a rectangle on a small version of the whole image. Dragging this outline will also pan the image in the main window. You can also click anywhere in the Pan window to set the pan position, or right drag an outline to roughly specify the region to zoom and pan to together.

Pan position

Panning in Ginga is based on an (X, Y) coordinate known as the pan position. The pan position determines what Ginga will try to keep in the middle of the window as the image is zoomed.

When zoomed out, you can Shift-click on a particular point in the image (or press the “p” key while hovering over a spot), setting the pan position. Zooming afterward will keep the pan position in the center of the window. To reset the pan position to the center of the image, press ‘c’.

Ginga has an auto zoom feature to automatically fit newly loaded images to the window, similar to what happens when the backquote key is pressed. See “Zoom Preferences” section in Preferences for details.

How Ginga maps an image to color

The process of mapping a monochrome science image to color in Ginga involves four steps, in order:

  1. Applying the cut levels, which scales all values in the image to a specified range 1,

  2. Applying a color distribution algorithm, which distributes values within that range to indexes into a color map table, and

  3. Applying a shift map, which shifts and stretches or shrinks the values according to the user’s contrast adjustment 2, and finally,

  4. Applying an intensity map and color map to map the final output to RGB pixel values.

Setting cut levels

When visualizing pixel data with an arbitrary value range, the range is first scaled into a limited range based on the low and high cut levels defined in the view object. These cut levels can be set manually by the user or automatically based on an algorithm. This eliminates the effect of outlier pixel/flux values.

Manually setting cut levels

There are several ways to manually set the cut levels:

  • Pressing Space followed by “s” key will put the viewer into “cuts” mode. Here you can invoke a dual (high and low) interactive cut levels. Click and drag the mouse horizontally in the window to interactively set the high level, and vertically to set the low level; and when you reach the desired levels, release the mouse button. Scrolling the mouse wheel in this mode will also change the low and high cut levels simultaneously–toward or away from each other, resulting in lower or higher contrast.

  • [RV] The “Cut Low” and “Cut High” boxes in the Info plugin panel can be used. The current values are shown to the left; simply type a new value in the corresponding box and press Enter or click the “Cut Levels” button below. Cut values can also be set from the “Histogram” plugin.

Automatically setting cut levels

Ginga can algorithmically estimate and set the cut levels–called auto (cut) levels. To activate the auto levels:

  • Press the (“a”) key when the viewing widget has the focus.

  • [RV] Click the “Auto Levels” button in the Info plugin panel.

[RV] The auto cut levels feature is controlled by several factors in the preferences, including the choice of algorithm and some parameters to the algorithm. See “Auto Cuts Preferences” section in Preferences for details.

Ginga can also automatically set the cut levels for new images displayed in the view. See “New Image Preferences” section in Preferences for details.

Setting the color distribution algorithm

Ginga supports a number of color scale distribution algorithms, including:

  • “linear”,

  • “log”,

  • “power”,

  • “sqrt”,

  • “squared”,

  • “asinh”,

  • “sinh”, and

  • “histeq” (histogram equalization).

These can be sampled with the current color and intensity maps by pressing Space followed by “d” key to go into “dist” mode, and then scrolling the mouse, pressing the up/down keys, or the “b” and “n” keys.

Press Esc to exit the “dist” mode.

To reset to the default (“linear”) map, press “D” (capital D).

[RV] The color scale distribution algorithms can also be set from the Preferences plugin, under the heading “Color Distribution”.

Making contrast adjustments

The value range can be shifted and stretched or squeezed to alter the visibility and contrast of the image. This is sometimes called a “bias/contrast” adjustment in other viewers.

In most Ginga configurations the shift map adjustment is bound to the Ctrl-right drag combination (hold Ctrl down and right drag). Dragging left/right shifts the map, and up/down stretches or shrinks the map.

You can also press “t” to enter “contrast” mode, where you can then use a regular Left-drag.

Changing the color and intensity maps

The color and intensity maps control the final mapping of colors to the values in the image.

Intensity Maps

Intensity maps are available to produce a final permutation on the value range of the image before color is applied. The function of these largely overlaps the function of the color distribution algorithm, so most users will typically use either one or the other, but not both.

For example, the intensity map “log” essentially applies a log distribution to the range. If this has already been done with the color distribution “log”, the effect is doubly applied.

Possible values for the intensity map are:

  • “equa”,

  • “expo”,

  • “gamma”,

  • “jigsaw”,

  • “lasritt”,

  • “log”,

  • “neg”,

  • “neglog”,

  • “null”, “ramp” and

  • “stairs”.

“ramp” is the default value.

While in “cmap” mode (described below), the “j” and “k” keys can be used to cycle through the intensity maps.

Color Maps

To change color maps from the keyboard shortcuts, press Space followed by “y” to go into “cmap” mode. While in “cmap” mode you can change color maps by scrolling the mouse, pressing the up/down keys, or the “b” and “n” keys.

While in “cmap” mode, pressing “I” (uppercase) will invert the current color map. Press Esc to exit cmap mode.


Setting a new color map will cancel the color map inversion. Some color maps are available in both regular and inverted forms. If selecting an already inverted (aka “reversed”) color map it is not necessary to explicitly invert it.

While many color maps are available built in, users can also define their own color maps or use matplotlib color maps, if the matplotlib package is installed.

[RV] The ColorMapPicker global plugin is useful you to visualize all of the colormaps and apply one to the currently active channel viewer.

Transforming the image view

Ginga provides several controls for transforming the image view. The image can be flipped in the X axis (“horizontally”), Y axis (“vertically”), have the X and Y axes swapped, or any combination thereof. These operations can be done by keyboard shortcuts:

  • Press “[” to flip in X, “{” to restore.

  • Press “]” to flip in Y, “}” to restore.

  • Press “" to swap X and Y axes, “|” to restore.

The image can also be rotated in arbitrary amounts.

An interactive rotate operation can be initiated by pressing Space follwed by “r” in the image and then dragging the mouse horizontally left or right to set the angle. Press “R” (Shift+R) to restore the angle to 0 (unrotated).


It is less computationally-intensive to rotate the image using the simple transforms (flip, swap) than by the rotation feature. Rotation may slow down some viewing operations.

[RV] The image can also be transformed in the channel Preferences (see “Transform Preferences”) which has checkboxes for flip X, flip Y, swap XY and a box for rotation by degrees.



Some image viewers or graphing programs use the term “limits” for what we call “cut levels”.


What some programs call a “contrast/bias” adjustment.